Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Lead exposure and heart disease

If you do volunteer work, whether it’s at a school, soup kitchen, or senior center, perhaps you’ve experienced the emotional rewards of donating your time. What you might not realize, however, is that volunteering may offer some added advantages for your heart.

“There’s a growing body of research showing that volunteering is associated with better physical and mental health outcomes,” says Eric S. Kim, a research fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. A study he co-authored, published in Social Science and Medicine earlier this year, found that volunteers were more likely to use preventive health care services. For instance, people who volunteered were 47% more likely to get cholesterol checks and 30% more likely to get flu shots than those who didn’t volunteer. (An annual flu shot appears to lower the risk of heart attack and stroke by about one-third over the following year.)
Measurable gains

The participants were part of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study launched in 1992 that includes more than 7,100 adults over age 50. Earlier research from the same study found that people who volunteered on a regular basis (at least 200 hours a year) were less likely to develop high blood pressure over a four-year period than non-volunteers. Volunteers also had greater increases in psychological well-being and physical activity.

Another large, ongoing study of volunteerism, Baltimore Experience Corp Study, has also documented physical, social, and cognitive improvements in volunteers. Begun in 1995 and now operating in multiple cities across the United States, Experience Corps pairs adults ages 50 or older with public school students who struggle with reading. Earlier studies have found that, compared with a control group, Experience Corps volunteers tend to walk more steps, be less depressed, find it easier to do everyday tasks, and have better thinking skills.
 Why connection matters

The well-known advantages of greater social connectivity likely play a large role, says Kim. “For example, when you’re more connected to your community, it’s easier to get information on things like how to find the best deals on fresh vegetables, or where to get a free flu shot. People also provide one another emotional support.”

Another intriguing potential benefit is that volunteering may give people a greater sense of purpose in life. There are three elements to a sense of purpose: a sense of meaning, a sense of direction, and a goal to strive for, Kim explains. In recent years, research on health and longevity has expanded to focus more on these types of positive emotions.

“We know that stress, depression, and anger all have negative effects on the body, especially with regard to the risk of cardiovascular disease,” says Kim. The opposite emotions and mindsets — satisfaction and optimism — are closely linked to (but not necessarily synonymous with) a sense of purpose, he adds. Yet a sense of purpose is associated with better heart health above and beyond the effects of optimism and a positive outlook. In fact, a 2016 report in Psychosomatic Medicine that pooled findings from 10 different studies found that people with a high sense of purpose in life had a lower risk of having a cardiovascular event (such as a heart attack or stroke) and of dying from any cause, compared with people who had a lower sense of purpose.

You can explore a wide range of volunteer opportunities online at these organizations, which offer many different ways to give back to your community:

    Volunteer Match ( connects people with local volunteer opportunities that match their interests and expertise, with such choices as helping animals, assisting immigrants and refugees, working with computers and technology, and numerous others.
    The Corporation for National and Community Service ( is a federal agency that invests in a range of nonprofit local community organizations that mentor and tutor at-risk youth, rebuild communities struck by natural disasters, help seniors live independently, and support veterans and military families.
    Experience Corps ( recruits and trains older adults to tutor children from kindergarten through third grade who are struggling to read. They work in lower-income districts in 22 cities throughout the country. Picture this: you’re reading the results of your recent bloodwork, and you notice some numbers are teetering on the edge of the normal range. Should you be concerned? “It’s tricky, because in some tests, a borderline result makes no difference. In others, it might indicate an important change in health that we need to follow or act on,” says geriatrician Dr. Suzanne Salamon, assistant professor at Harvard Medical School.
About normal ranges and interpreting the numbers

When you look at a printout of your lab results, you’ll find the normal ranges for each blood test next to your personal results. For example, if your routine blood work includes a test for calcium in the blood, your lab may list the normal range for calcium as 8.3 to 9.9 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). If your result is a 9.1 mg/dL, right in the middle, you can feel confident that your calcium level is normal.

But what if a blood test result is at the very low or high end of normal, or even slightly outside the normal range? Is that a red flag? “Don’t jump to conclusions,” warns Dr. Salamon. “Blood test results can vary a little bit, depending on the lab. And many people are consistently on one side or the other of the normal range, and for them, that’s healthy,” says Dr. Salamon.

Take, for example, a routine measure of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), a waste product created as your body breaks down the protein in your diet. Excess urea is removed from the blood by the kidneys, so high levels of BUN in the blood can indicate that kidney function is declining. So, what does it mean if your BUN level is at the very high end of the normal range? “If I see that it’s borderline high, I might ignore it,” says Dr. Salamon. “It’s common for BUN to go up if you don’t drink enough, and that can happen when someone is fasting before having blood drawn.”

Minor fluctuations in test results may also reflect

    recent infections
    medication side effects
    inaccurate lab procedures.

Dr. Salamon emphasizes the need to look at someone’s entire picture of health to interpret a blood test. In our BUN example, a number just above the normal range might actually be a sign of a bleeding ulcer in the stomach or small intestine, not failing kidneys. “It depends on the person, the symptoms, and the other conditions that are present,” she says.
When to be concerned

Instead of looking at a one-time test result on the high or low end of normal, Dr. Salamon says she looks at trends. “I get concerned if there’s a change from what’s been normal for years, for you. If your test result is always in the high normal range, I’m not concerned. But if it’s always been in the low normal range, and today it’s high normal, that’s different.”

For example, let’s say you have your blood sugar (glucose) measured every three years (that’s how often the American Diabetes Association recommends routine blood sugar testing for everyone over age 45, if previous test results have been normal). The normal range is between 60 and 100 mg/dL. Levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL are considered “prediabetes” — that is, not quite full-blown diabetes, but approaching it. If your results have usually been 81 or 82 mg/dL, but your latest result is suddenly 98 mg/dL, it’s still considered normal, but the change might spark a conversation about your diet. Dr. Salamon says she would, for example, ask you questions like “Have you put on weight? Are you eating more carbohydrates and sugary foods?” as a way to start investigating why your blood sugar is suddenly going up.

But some tests don’t have any room for fluctuation, such as tests for liver enzymes, called AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase). “If these levels were always normal, and now one of them starts to go up one or two points, there might be something wrong with liver function, and I’d want to know why,” says Dr. Salamon.
What you should do

Get an annual check-up, and don’t skip routine bloodwork. Even if you feel that you’re healthy, it’s still a good idea to have a continuous record of standard blood markers so your doctor can look for trends. If you have some results at the high or low end of normal, ask your doctor if you should repeat the test or investigate them further. But remember: “Each test has its own rules, and it takes years to understand how the numbers work together,” says Dr. Salamon. “Leave the interpretation up to your doctor.”Fish farming is a highly lucrative and profitable business. It is said that the quantity of fish that are produced locally cannot feed the Nigerian population of over 200 million people. With this, there is an open market for individuals who will like to grab this opportunity in the fish market and locally produce fish.

Firstly we will consider the commercial potentials of basic fish farming in Nigeria.

Commercial Potential of Fish Farming In Nigeria

    Nigerians eat a lot of fish daily because it is a very cheap source of protein compared to meat.
    Secondly, there is a high demand of fish importation in the country.
    It is also important to note that in order to start a fish farm, the cost implication is cheaper as compared to setting up a poultry farm or any livestock farm.
    Fourthly, with government support toward agriculture, you are assured of loans on a long term.

Write a Fish farming business plan

Having known the benefits in starting up a fish business, you can therefore write a business plan and start up. Carry out a market survey to gather all necessary information about the business and also to know the cost items or things needed so as to have an estimated budget price for capital.

As you survey also inquire about the type of fish you want to start with and find out which one is currently on demand and low on production. After carrying out the survey, you can write a business plan to create strategies to run the business.

Begin Small

Begin with the little you can start and use this stage of the business to expand in knowledge and as you get more experience in the business, you can expand as more funds come in. With about three hundred thousand naira (N3000), you can get a pond which can contain an average of 10000 mature fishes and this depends on if you already have a piece of land with a stable source of water.

Types of Fish pond

For your fish farming business to be successful, you are to put into consideration the type of pond to be used in a given environment.

When you purchase a piece of land for your fish business, you need to get an expert opinion on the type of pond that should be constructed. The type of pond are namely:

    a) Earthen Pond

This type of pond from its name is from the soil which consists of about 25% of clay that enables the free flow of water. This pond can be constructed in any desired shape, majorly close to swampy areas whereby there’s a free flow of natural water in and out of the pond.

    b) Concrete Pond

This pond involves the use of sand, gravel and cement with manually fix pipes used to pump water in and out of the pond from a storage tank. A well or borehole is built to supply constant water to pond on a regular basis.

    c) The Plastic Pond

This is a type of pond made from plastic and installed in the compound where the fish farm business will be tested. This is a less expensive type of pond and can be used by anyone.

Location and Land Mass of Farm

You may want to start with a plot of land or more but this should be big enough for the construction of your ponds and the water source either well or borehole.

A lot of people started the business from their own backyards and later expanded to bigger accessible environment as the demand for more fishes increased.

Types of Fishes You can Produce

The popular fishes in Nigeria with high demand are the Cat Fish, Salmon and Tilapia

Cat Fish

Cat fish is easy to breed and nigerians love catfish. A lot of restaurants, Beer Parlors and Hotels prepare soups and pepper soups using catfish. It is also used during ceremonial activities and many Farmers choose to do cat fish because the demand for it is very high.


This is a very popular fish in Nigeria and it is widely called the Titus fish. The natural habitat for the Salmon is the oceans but farmers can produce them also


Nigerians eat a lot of tiliapa especially in their soups. It is enjoyed and mostly breeded by farmers because they grow fast and the matured ones are usually fleshy.

Sterilize Water

Sterilize water with antibacterial and anti-fungi medicine and make sure the ion and natural concentration of water is of equal strength before you place your fish inside the pond. Get an aquaculture consultant for proper instructions.


To start your breeding, you can get Fingerlings and Juveniles at a different price range for both of them and be sure of the exact amount you need to begin with.

Feeding the Fish

Fishes grow faster when they ate being fed well, feeding them properly would enable them grow faster from 1 to 1.5 kg in 4 to 6 months.

 Things You Should Know and Do In Fish Business

Below is a list of things you should know and do in running a fish business and they are highlighted in no order.

    Make sure you purchase healthy Fingerlings and Juveniles from farms that produce them
    Let them be fed two times in a day
    To prevent pollution in the water, carry out spot feeding
    Never change water immediately after feeding so that they do not vomit the food
    Do not manage water as fish cannot survive outside water
    Change water after two or three days with fresh water
    Supply fish with vitamin supplements to prevent diseases and keep them healthy
    Purchase the common brand of feed on sale such as Raanan, Livestovit and Aquafeed
    Separate fishes by sizes as they mature to avoid bigger ones from eating eating smaller ones
    Same size fishes will grow, struggle for food, swim, and have healthy competition
    To save cost of feed, buy your own Pelletizer to make your personal feed
    Store feeds in a cool dry place save from rodents and pests
    Gain knowledge from aquaculture experts by attending seminars and conferences.

Sale after Maturity

You can sell to anyone who want to as long as you know the actual price in the open market having done your market survey, as in that way you make profits.

What to do to avoid problems in Fish Farming

Certain problems may occur in fish farming and could be due to inexperience in the business and I have highlighted them for you below:

    No Business Plan

Without a business plan you’re planning to fail in this business. It is important to have a business plan in order to protect your capital

    Lack of experience

Get adequate knowledge, have a mentor, attend seminars; get all the help you can.

    Bad Farm Site

Have an easy accessible farm site to buyers, let the roads to your farms but vehicle friendly


Control the temperature in the pond to save your fishes. With a high water temperature in the pond, the juveniles at risk of dying, no production of egg and decrease in reproduction.


Competition is a factor which cannot seized to exist in any business and for the fish business, it is not different. To get your customers you need to move into the market  away from your immediate environment to sell at the best price available


Disease can wipe out juveniles in no time, therefore it is important that the juveniles are monitored closely and regular checkup should be done on the them to prevent any deadly disease outbreak which could lead to a big loss. If any irregularity is noticed, kindly notify the Vet immediately.


This business is open to anyone who wants to make millions providing the cheapest source of protein to Nigerians. Take advantage of this opportunity using the guidelines above and you can be one major provider of fish to one or more states in Nigeria. Asked a million dollar question get a pass on a mosquito come here to give us 300 marks LASIK they hate jumping up his feet again they get the hotter correct chemistry subject about has subsequently acquis back to the magnet economic keyboard or science or science subjects chemistry they’ll have the chemistry with the chemistry to get the good marks and chemistry apo bus the habit of Nick industry could develop or not or Zaza so to Digi key as a systematic way images and but I think so follow getting a 200% marks up could definitely angry Jim Hillary someday or but took 100 out of hundred I hate to ask any zero re login with it but the way I could hand rock now subsequently bought a big and ugly je cache after chemistry exam pattern Gary you have a coach in America

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